Module summary

Number 1 The internet

  • Internet is a system of computer networks, which rely on shared protocols, or standards, in order to communicate with each other. The web is one of the applications which runs on the internet.

Number 2 The web

  • The web is a collection of hypertext pages. Web pages are constructed using HTML, which stands for Hypertext Markup Language.
  • Only a fraction of the content of the web is available to you (the surface web). Much of the content of the web resides in databases, or behind paywalls.
  • Web browsers are graphical interfaces which allow you to interact with and navigate the web. You can change your browser settings and download add-ons to enhance your browsing experience and to protect your privacy.

Number 3 URLs and domains

  • A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is the web address you use to locate websites or other documents on the web. URLs have three component parts: protocol, domain, and path.
  • Check for the https:// protocol in the URL before giving any personal information to a website or starting a transaction.

Number 4 Who controls the internet?

  • Much of the architecture and underlying technologies of the internet and web are free.
  • There are a range of criminal and civil laws that regulate how Australians behave online.
  • Internet users are also bound by terms and conditions they agree to when using online services.

Number 5 Cyber security

  • Our digital connectedness leaves us vulnerable to cyber security threats.
  • A common security threat is phishing, which involves a person using electronic communication, typically email, to induce the user to click on a malicious link, or provide sensitive data.
  • Installing anti-virus software is recommended, but there is a range of additional steps you can take.

Number 6 The effects of digital technology

  • Digital technology can have both positive and negative effects on our wellbeing.
  • You can get help and use strategies to try to control the bad effects.

You have completed the Internet Essentials module.


Digital Skills – choose other modules to build your digital capabilities.


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Digital Skills: Security and Safety Copyright © 2023 by Charles Sturt University is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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